Deductive and Inductive Reasoning (Bacon vs Aristotle -…

Deductive and Inductive Reasoning (Bacon vs Aristotle – Scientific Revolution)

In order to understand the Scientific Revolution, it is essential for students to understand the new ways of scientific thinking that surfaced during the 17th century. Deductive reasoning, which uses general premises to arrive at a certain conclusion, has been around since Aristotle. In his book Novum Organum, Sir Francis Bacon advanced a new way of philosophical inquiry known as inductive reasoning, in which the inquirer comes to a probable conclusion based on several specific observations.

While inductive reasoning is typically most closely associated with the scientific method, inductive reasoning has not lost its value. Rene Descartes famous phrase, “Cogito Ergo Sum,” is in itself a process of induction.

I present several examples of deductive and inductive reasoning, including Aristotle’s classic, “All men are mortal… Socrates is a man… Socrates is mortal.” I also explore the so-called “problem of induction” noted by critics such as David Hume. Although induction cannot lead to certain truth, it was never meant to lead to certain truth.

Although I designed this lecture for my AP European History students, it can also be useful for those studying philosophy, communication, logic, and the scientific method.

By: Tom Richey.

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Deductive and Inductive Reasoning (Bacon vs Aristotle -…

Enlightenment Rap Mr. Fritts challenged me to write a rap about…

Enlightenment Rap

Mr. Fritts challenged me to write a rap about the Enlightenment… so I did. This rap has appearances by Voltaire, Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant, and references to Diderot and Montesquieu.

By: Tom Richey.

Enlightenment Rap Mr. Fritts challenged me to write a rap about…

Revolutions of 1848 in Britain and Russia / Concluding Remarks…

Revolutions of 1848 in Britain and Russia / Concluding Remarks (Revolutions of 1848: Part 5)

In the final segment of my lecture series on the Revolutions of 1848, I discuss why there was no violent revolutionary activity in Britain or Russia and also discuss the legacies of the Revolutions of 1848. In the mid-19th century, the British Parliament showed a modest openness to reform that was un-matched by the governments on the continent. Although the Chartist movement peaked in the 1840s, it never reached the point of threatening the viability of the government. Russia was another story. While the British held off revolution by passing modest reform legislation, Nicholas I of Russia so violently repressed the Decembrist Revolt in 1825 that the climate was not ripe for revolution even twenty years later. Russia would have its revolution in due time.

While the Revolutions of 1848 were short-term failures, they heavily influenced the unifications of Germany and Italy. Pragmatists took over these efforts and the so-called “Age of Metternich” yielded to the Age of Bismarck. Realpolitik – not consensus – would be the order of the day for European foreign policy in the late 19th century.

This is the last segment of my series on the Revolutions of 1848. Check out the whole thing here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLfzs_X6OQBOxoltdJPdcw_vQlZqnDSwTl

By: Tom Richey.

Revolutions of 1848 in Britain and Russia / Concluding Remarks…

Revolutions of 1848 in Italy (Part 4 of 5) In the third part of…

Revolutions of 1848 in Italy (Part 4 of 5)

In the third part of my lecture on the Revolutions of 1848, I take a snapshot of a critical point in the process of Italian Unification. The failed Revolutions of 1848 in Italy resulted in the a paradigm shift from Mazzini’s romantic republican nationalism to a more pragmatic and successful nationalism.

By: Tom Richey.

Revolutions of 1848 in Italy (Part 4 of 5) In the third part of…

Revolutions of 1848 in the German States (Part 3 of 5) In the…

Revolutions of 1848 in the German States (Part 3 of 5)

In the third part of my lecture on the Revolutions of 1848, I focus on the revolutions in the German states – namely in Prussia and the Austrian Empire. Prussia and Austria both experienced upheavals as liberals and nationalists attempted to overthrow the conservative governing regimes. Eventually, the conservatives regained power – with a little outside help from Russia in suppressing the Hungarian Revolution – and Germany would not be unified through any “ism,” but through Blood and Iron.

By: Tom Richey.

Revolutions of 1848 in the German States (Part 3 of 5) In the…

France (Revolutions of 1848 – Part II) In the second part of my…

France (Revolutions of 1848 – Part II)

In the second part of my lecture on the Revolutions of 1848, I focus on the French Revolution of 1848, where the French overthrew the “Citizen King,” Louis Philippe, and established a short-lived Second Republic under the leadership of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. After he was term-limited by the Second Republic’s constitution, Louis Napoleon staged a coup d’etat and established the Second French Empire with himself as emperor. It appears that the Napoleonic apple doesn’t fall far from the tree!

By: Tom Richey.

France (Revolutions of 1848 – Part II) In the second part of my…

The Revolutions of 1848 An introduction to the Revolutions of…

The Revolutions of 1848

An introduction to the Revolutions of 1848 – the first part of a series covering these simultaneous (but ultimately unsuccessful) revolutions. Later segments will focus on the individual revolutions in France, the German States, and Italy, as well as an examination of why neither Britain nor Russia experienced a revolution during this time.

By: Tom Richey.

The Revolutions of 1848 An introduction to the Revolutions of…